New Manufacturing Technologies and Designs

Overview:  Lower cost and more efficient materials and processes are aimed at producing electrochemical and solar energy generation and storage devices and sensors that are more cost effective, and environmentally friendly.

Improved photovoltaic and solar cells: Enerize offers a number of manufacturing and design innovations.

  • Use of super-fine plates of monocrystalline silicon (50-100 μm) saves silicon raw materials, thus reducing the cost and weight of solar cells.
  • Energy saving and reduction of labor cost by eliminating the high temperature process of phosphorous diffusion and improvements in the production method for anti-reflecting coating
  • Application of nano-porous silicon with predetermined sizes of  nano-crystals provides  maximum  light absorption and decreases the recombination loss both in the bulk volume and on the crystal surface.
  • Use special equipment and technology for creation of high conductive and high transparency conductive oxides for solar cells.

New class of microelectronic sensors: New sensors based on new thin-film semi-conducting materials including cerium, tungsten, and dysprosium oxides as well as two-composition oxide and proprietary material deposition technologies systems can be applied to a variety of tasks including

  • Radiation resistant highly-sensitive temperature sensors (atomic power, thermal power)
  • Heat flows and heat loss sensors utilizing portable electronic transducer tubes
  • Microelectronic sensors for oxygen and carbon oxides content for control and selection of optimal firing conditions (e.g. thermoelectric power stations, boiler-houses, etc.)
  • Microelectronic sensors for determination of hydrogen concentrations
  • Microelectronic sensors for determination and control of ion concentration  (calcium, fluorine, etc. for determination of water hardness at thermoelectric power stations)

Advanced Thin Film Deposition Process: Enerize has developed new technology and equipment for making thin film electrodes and solid electrolyte by deposition in various substrates.

Gas detonation and high voltage glow discharge electron sources are used in this deposition process. Powder particles are deposited on a substrate at high kinetic energy forming a high quality coating. The resulting electrodes have no binder and thus have more electrochemically active material per unit volume for a higher energy density. The electrodes also exhibit outstanding adhesion and cohesion properties. Examples of electrode electrochemical performance of electrodes thus produced: include  carbon composite anodes of Li-ion batteries with  discharge capacities up to  900 Ah/kg.

Thin-film integrated circuits and photovoltaic modules with amorphous silicon alloys can be deposited on flexible substrates films such as polyimide and lavsan using our high rate deposition technology.  This process does not use toxic gases or substances and provides a high rate of production.

New Materials and Designs for Supercapacitors
Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), or supercapacitors, are finding increased application as rugged, reliable and long-lived energy storage devices. EDLC’s can be used in everything from small portable DC power supplies to large installations ensuring power quality on AC electrical grids.

In addition to research aimed at increasing supercapacitor performance, Enerize has partnered with another leading design and manufacturing house to develop and market advanced bipolar electrode supercapacitors that are engineered for specific applications such as wind turbine pitch control.

Text Box:  One such device, providing 18 kJoule at 200V is shown here.
Bi-polar electrode devices require fewer components than conventional EDLC devices to store a given amount of energy. Bipolar electrode devices therefore have high power density and do not require as much circuitry to control charge and discharge rates.

Enerize stands ready to develop and deliver ECLD solutions for your specific applications. As shown above our bipolar electrode units have higher power densities than conventional EDLC units and can be adapted to form factors that                                          will meet most application requirements.

Looking to the future, there is emerging interest in combining the features and functions of supercapacitors with those of batteries into one hybrid package. Such a hybrid device would be capable of providing the relatively high energy densities characteristic of batteries as well as the high power density of supercapacitors, when needed.

Because each element in the device would assume the energy storage and delivery tasks for which it is best suited, the service life of such a hybrid device, both in terms of calendar time and cycle number, would be increased over that of presently used batteries. Integrating both types of electrochemical devices into one package would reduce overall weight, volume and cost compared with using the two devices separately.
Enerize Corporation is working on the integration of supercapacitor and battery-like functions into a hybrid electrical storage device would offer advantages in addition to those described above, and could be especially well suited for a number of applications. Such devices would be especially valuable, for example, in applications that require high energy density with intermittent high power demands.

Hybrid Autonomous Power Systems: Integration of solar cells and batteries, or solar cells and supercapacitors, into a single energy generation and storage package are of increasing interest for autonomous power systems. Using Enerize materials and fabrication techniques, such hybrid power systems are becoming a reality.

To develop the hybrid devices, Enerize has created thin-film hybrid systems comprising solar cells and lithium ion batteries. Similar thin-film deposition manufacturing techniques can be used to form batteries and solar cells, or batteries and supercapacitors into a single, flexible package.

These hybrid systems can provide reliable autonomous power for a number of applications including remotely located sensor or communication systems.
 
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